A Comparison of Celebrity and Expert Endorsers on Advertising Effectiveness

Topics: Advertising, Brand, Graphic design Pages: 55 (15929 words) Published: April 20, 2013
Table of Contents
Table of Contents

Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 Background to Topic
1.2 Fashion Field and Skin care Product
Chapter Two: Literature Review
2.1Advertising Endorser
2.1.2 Expert
2.2 Endorser Credibility
2.2.1 Trustworthiness
2.2.2 Expertise
2.2.3 Attractiveness
2.3 Advertising Effectiveness
2.3.1 Brand Attitude
2.3.2 Attitude towards advertisement
2.3.3 Purchase Intention
2.4 Match-up Hypothesis
2.5 Information Processing of the Advertisement
Chapter Three:
Chapter Four: Methodology.
4.1 Quantitative Research
4.2 Questionnaire Design
4.3 Pilot Test
4.4 Data Analysis Techniques
4.4 Testing Credibility of Endorsers
4.5 Testing the Product Match-Up Hypothesis
4.6 Testing Advertisement Message Process
4.7 Testing Advertising Effectiveness
Chapter Five: Findings and Analysis
5.1 Result of Reliability Test
5.2 Results of Credibility of Endorsers
5.3 Results of Testing the Product Match-Up Hypothesis
5.4 Evaluation Impact on Advertisement Message Process
5.5 Evaluation Advertising Effectiveness
Chapter Six: Discussion and Conclusion

Chapter 1---Introduction

Chapter 1---Introduction
In designing an advertising campaign, an influencing persuasion is an important factor, product endorsers is significant towards the transmission of message between the brand and consumers and they often contribute to an advertisement's persuasiveness for many consumers. Advertising endorser is one of promotional strategies which are often seen in daily life. Its main purpose is to use a famous, professional or attractive endorser to grab consumers’ attention in a short period of time, in order to increase the effectiveness of the advertisement. It is important for endorsers to achieve the object of communication with consumers. Research finds that advertisements with a reliable endorser could attract consumers’ attention, raise brand awareness, and build unique brand image (Zajonc and Markus,1982). If a business can select product endorser carefully to match up with product attributes, it can produce a model effect to a brand. Therefore, understanding how consumers perceived product endorsers, and knowing which types of endorsers would create the best effect to the advertisement is significant for marketers. This research will mainly focus to research on skin-care products endorsers by the measure of their credibility, and how they influence the advertising effectiveness. 1.1 Background to Topic

1.2 Fashion Field and Skin care products

Fashion is a business of wide variety: from typical apparel business to beauty and health care products. The fashion field is highly segmented and overlaps with other fields, especially with the cosmetics and skin care products. Some of the household fashion brand names may not definitely correspond to the apparel business but other kinds of products. One of the characteristic of the fashion field is that it is constantly re-forming in strategic cooperation and alliances. Fashion companies such as Fendi, Polo Ralph Lauren, Kenzo, and Louis Vuitton are practicing the strategic integration. For example, Christian Dior is part of LVMH limited, which is the largest luxury company and group in the world, also include cosmetics products and skin care products in their brands. The structure of the fashion field is obscured mainly by licensing and franchising strategy; fashion companies may manufacture products which belong to a particular line in the structure. For example, Donna Karan International licenses its name to Estee Lauder, and Polo Ralph Lauren licenses the fragrances and skin-care products to L'Oreal. LVMH, Chanel and Prada have their own brand name lines in skin care products.

Some skin care brands may belong to the same fashion organization, though the brands are in totally different names and management structure. The identity of the famous fashion company would...

References: The outfit of the endorser is suggested to create positive attitude toward the consumers (Chaiken, 1979). McGuire (1985) also suggested that endorser which is familiar and likable towards the audience may bring persuasiveness to the advertisement.
2.1.1Celebrity Endorser
Schiffman and Kanuk (2007) defined celebrities to public and famous figures
2.2Endorser Credibility
According to Ohanian (1990), endorser credibility can be defined as "as a communicator 's positive characteristics that affect the receiver 's acceptance of a message"
Research found that higher levels of endorsers’ credibility would have a significant association with attitudes toward the advertisement and purchase intention (Craig and McCann, 1978; Woodside and Davenport, 1974).
Trustworthiness moreover refers to the honesty, believability and integrity of an endorser (Erdogan 1999). Therefore, honesty is in the trustworthiness attribute in this study.
Expertise is one of the fundamental dimensions of source credibility and is the knowledge sources are perceived to possess about the product they are endorsing (Homer and Kahle 1990; Ohanian 1990)
2.2.3 Attractiveness
In terms of attractiveness, it represents that advertising endorsers can catch consumers’ attention to a product (Ohania, 1990; Miciak & Shanklin, 1994; Goldsmith, Laffery, & Newell, 2000)
Some of the research may group attractiveness attributes in source attractiveness itself, however, attractiveness can also be as an attribute of source credibility in advertisments (McCracken, 1989; Ohanian, 1990).

In recent researches, it has proved that using of endorsers credibility has a positive influence on brand attitudes of the consumers (Seno and Lukas, 2005)
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