Smoking and alcohol use among college students remains the prominent problem in different colleges and universities in the country today. National survey results indicate that 4o percent of college students engaged in smoking and drinking alcohol. According to Windle (2003) smoking and alcohol use among college students is associated with a broad array risk behaviors, including tobacco use and drinking and driving. In addition, studies on college campuses have shown that students who do not smoke and drink nevertheless experience adverse secondhand effects of smoking and drinking, including victimization (e.g. verbal or physical threats and actions) and personal intrusion (e.g., disruption of sleep or study habits) by those who have been smoking and drinking (Wechsler et al 1998). Another disturbing trend in youth smoking and drinking is the initiation of cigarette and alcohol use at younger ages. Between 1997 and 2006, surveys have shown that the average age of initiation to cigarette and alcohol use decreased by more than 1.5 years, from 17.8 years in 1997 to 15.9 years in 2006 (Office of National drug Control Policy, 2007). In 2007, more than 32 percent of young people reported beginning to smoke and drink before age of 13 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007). Earlier initiation of smoking and alcohol use has been associated with increased risk for smoking and alcohol-related problems later in life particularly on health (Grant and Dawson, 2007). Aside from the immediate health risks involved in these actions, as well as the fact that these actions are illegal, cigarettes and alcohol are gateway drugs that can and often do lead to other drugs and other serious risk taking behaviors among students. Those who smoke and drink alcohol are more likely to engaged in pre-marital sexual relations (heterosexual and homosexual), more likely to struggle in school and have difficult in their relations with their parents (National...
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