A Study of the Important Factors for Upgradation or Adoption of New Technology
Roll No. MB-09-21
Institute of Management Sciences
Bahauddin Zakariya University
Institute of Management Sciences,
Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan
ATTESTATION OF AUTHORSHIP
Kanza Bushra Roll No. MB2-09-21 Registration No.
2005-bzba-158 A student of IMS
MBA (II) Program in B.Z. University, solemnly declare that my Project Report entitled A Study of the Important Factors for Upgradation or Adoption of New Technology Is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person. This report is not submitted already and shall not be submitted in future for obtaining a degree from same or another University or Institution. If it is found to be copied/plagiarized at later stage of any student enrolled in the same or any other university, I shall be liable to face legal action before Unfair Mean committee (UMC), as per BZU/HEC Rules and Regulations, and I understand that if I am found guilty, my degree will be cancelled.
Name: Kanza Bushra
Program: MBA (II)
The project report entitled “A Study of the Important Factors for Upgradation or Adoption of New Technology”, at IMS-BZU MBA (II) / MS conducted by Kanza Bushra Roll No. MB2-09-21 Registration no. 2005-bzba-158 Session 2009-2010 has been completed under my guidance and I am satisfied with the quality of student’s research work.
This research is about the identifying the factors that drives the manufacturing organizations in Pakistan towards technology upgradation. There are many factors that involve or influence the organizations in their technology upgradation or adoption decisions. Those factors are of organizational factors, production factors, cost factors and IT factors. First we have given the brief introduction of the topic that contains all the background and definition of the factors, their history and then identified the problem statement. After that we mentioned all research work that already had been done by different researchers. That literature helps to define the area of our problem and provide secondary data for or research. After that we defined the method, resources and whole design of the research by which we conducted this research. In the next phase we analyzed all the data, applied tests for hypotheses and explained all the results that come from this research and interpreted those results. The last phase is of findings and conclusion of the research, in which I explained the outcomes of the research and identified the factors that involved in technology upgradation or adoption process. The last part of the report findings explains the factors and give the findings about accepted or rejected hypotheses.
First of all, I would like to say Alhamdulillah, for giving me the strength and health to do this project work until it done. Then special thank goes to my helpful supervisor, Mr. Liaqat Javed. The supervision and support that he gave truly help the progression and smoothness of this thesis. The co-operation is much indeed appreciated. Not forgotten to my family for providing support and everything to complete this project and their advice, which is the most needed for this project. Last but not least, my friends who were doing this project with me and sharing our ideas. They were helpful that when we combined and discussed together, we had this task done.
Dedicated to all those who helped me and encouraged me even with single word, and to those, without whom I m nothing.
ATTESTATION OF AUTHORSHIP
Bibliography: Aalbers, R., Heijden, E. v., Potters, J., Soest, D. v., & Vollebergh, H. (2009). Technology adoption subsidies: An experiment with managers. Energy Economics , 431–442.
Adrian, A. M., Norwood, S. H., & Mask, P. L. (2005). Producers’ perceptions and attitudes toward precision agriculture technologies. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture , 256–271.
Adrian, S. A. (2005). Producers’ perceptions and attitudes toward precision agriculture technologies. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture , 256–271.
Alavi, M., & Leidner, E. (1999). Knowledge Management Systems: Issues, Challenges and Benefit. Communications of the AIS , 1-37.
Astebro, T. (2002). Noncapital investment costs and the adoption of CAD and CNC in US metalworking industries. Rand Journal of Economics , 672–688.
Baldwin, J., & Lin, Z. (2002). Impediments to advanced technology adoption for Canadian manufacturers. Research Policy , 1–18.
Baldwin, J., Diverty, B., & Sabourin, D. (1995). Technology use and industrial transformation: empirical perspectives. Technology, Information and Public Policy .
Baldwin, J., Sabourin, D., & Raﬁquzzaman, M. (1996). Beneﬁts and effects are not mutully exclusive; neither is the use of groups of technologies. 33-73.
Ballantine, J., Galliers, R., & Stray, S. (1996). Information systems/technology practice: evidence from UK organisations. Journal of Information Technology , 129– 142.
Beatty, R. C., Shim, J., & Jones, M. C. (2001). Factores influencing corporate web adoption: a time based assement. Information and management , 337-354.
Beaumont, N., & Schroder, R. (1997). Technology, manufacturing performance and business performance amongst Australian manufacturers. Technovation , 297–307.
Black, S., & Lynch, L. (2000). What’s driving the neweconomy: the beneﬁts ofworkplace innovation. NBER Working Paper. Cambridge.
Brooks, R. M., May, D. O., & Mishra, C. S. (2001). The performance of ﬁrms before and after they adopt accounting-based performance plans. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance , 205–222.
Cappellari, L., & Jenkins, S. (2003). Multivariate probit regression using simulated maximum likelihood. The Stata Journal , 278–294.
Carpenter, V. L., & Feroz, E. H. (2001). Institutional theory andaccounting rule choice: an analysis of four US stats governments, decisions to adopt generally accepted accounting princples. accounting, organizations and society , 565-596.
Centeno, C. (2004). Adoption of Internet services in the Acceding and Candidate Countries, lessons from the Internet. Telematics and Informatics , 293–315.
Cheong, J., & Park, M. (2005). Mobile Internet acceptance in Korea. Internet Research , 125–140.
Chuu, S. (2009). Group decision-making model using fuzzy multiple attributes analysis for the evaluation of advanced manufacturing technology. Fuzzy Sets and Systems , 586–602.
Cline, R. (2001). The future of hospitality e-business: how the Internet has changed the hotel industry. Lodging Hospitality , 24–30.
Cochrane, W. (1993). The Development of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis. The Development of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Cohen, W. (1995). Empirical studies of innovative activity. In: Stoneman, P. (Ed.). Handbook of the Economics of Innovation and Technological Change. , 182–164.
Cohen, W., & Levinthal, D. (1989). Innovation and learning: the two faces of R&D. Economic Journal , 569–596.
Compeau, D., & Higgins, C. (1995). Computer self-efﬁcacy: development of a measure and initial test. MIS Q , 189–211.
Cooper, R. (1994). New products: the factors that drive success. International Marketing Review , 60–76.
Cooper, R., & Zmud, R. (1990). Information technology implementation research: a technological diffusion approach. Management Science , 123-139.
Coria, J. (2009). Taxes, permits, and the diffusion of a new technology. Resource and Energy Economics , 249–271.
Coviello, N., & McAuley, A. (1991). Internationalisation and the smaller ﬁrm: a review of performance. Journal of Management Studies , 28, 439-61.
Daberkow, S. (2003). Farm and operator characteristics affecting the awareness and adoption of precision agriculture technologies in the US. Precision Agric , 163–177.
Daberkow, S., & McBride, W. (2003). Farm and operator characteristics affecting the awareness and adoption of precision agriculture technologies in the US. Precision Agric , 163–177.
Daniel, A. D. (2010). Technology adoption, training and productivity performance. Research Policy , 650–661.
Daniel, E., Wilson, H., & Myers, A. (2002). Adoption of e-commerce by SMEs in the UK: towards a stage model. International Small Business Journal , 253-270.
DARON, A., POL, A., & ELHANAN, H. (2007). Contracts and Technology Adoption. American Economic Review , 916-943.
Davis, F. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Q , 319–339.
Davis, F., Bagozzi, R., & Warshaw, P. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science , 982–1003.
DeCanio, S., & Watkins, W. (1998). Investment in energy efﬁciency: do the characteristics of ﬁrms matter. Review of Economic Studies , 95–107.
Del Aguila, A. O., Bruque, S. C., & Padilla, A. (2002). Internet usage and competitive advantage: the impact of the Internet on an old economy sector. Internet Research , 391-401.
Del Aguila, A. R., & Melendez, A. P. (2006). Organizational factors affecting Internet technology adoption. Internet Research , 94-110.
Desai, M. S., Desai, K. J., & Ojode, L. (2004). A global information technolog model: business applications in developing economies (case studies). Information Management & Computer Security , 401-410.
Dieperink, C., Brand, I., & Vermeulen, W. (2004). Diffusion of energy-saving innovations in industry and the built environment: Dutch studies as inputs for a more integrated analytical framework. Energy Policy , 73–84.
Durkin, M., & McGowan, P. (2001). Exploring a more complete competency spectrum in entrepreneurial small ﬁrm Internet marketing. Marketing and Entrepreneurship track at the AMA Summer Educators Conference. Washington, DC.
Fillis, I., Johannson, U., & Wagner, B. (2004). Factors impacting on e-business adoption and development in the smaller ﬁrm. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research , 178-191.
FISCHER, M. J. (1996). “REALZING” THE BENEFITS OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES AS A SOURCE OF AUDIT EVIDENCE: AN INTERPRETIVE FIELD STUDY. accounting, organizations and sociaty , 21, 219-242.
Ford, D. (1988). Develop your technology strategy. Long Range Planning , 88–95.
Frambach, R. (1993). An integrated model of organizational adoption and diffusion of innovations. European Journal of Marketing , 22–41.
Fuentelsaz, L., Gómez, J., & Polo, Y. (2003). Intraﬁrm diffusion of new technologies. An empirical application. Research Policy , 533–551.
Gatignon, H., & Robertson, T. (1989). Technology diffusion: an empirical test of competitive effects. Journal of Marketing , 35–49.
Geroski, P. (2000). Models of technology diffusion. Research Policy , 603–625.
Getzner, M. (2000). Motivations for and economic success of the adoption of clean technologies. Unpublished manuscript .
Getzner, M. (2002). The quantitative and qualitative impacts of clean technologies on employment. Journal of Cleaner Production , 305–319.
Giannantoni, C., & Zoli, M. (2010). The Four-Sector Diagram of Beneﬁts (FSDOB) as a method for evaluating strategic interactions between humans and the environment The case study of hydrogen fuel cell buses. Ecological Economics , 486–494.
Giné, X., & Yang, D. (2009). Insurance, credit, and technology adoption: Field experimental evidence from Malawi. Journal of Development Economics , 1–11.
Goldin, C., & Katz, L. (1998). The origins of technology-skill complementarity. Quarterly Journal of Economics , 693–732.
Goode, S., & Stevens, K. (2000). An analysis of the business characteristics of adopters and non-adopters of World Wide Web technology. Information Technology and Management , 129–154.
Grover, V., & Goslar, M. (1993). The initiation, adoption, and implementation of telecommunications technologies in US organizations. Journal of Management Information Systems , 141-163.
Han, J., Kim, N., & Srivastava, R. (1998). Market orientation and organizational performance: is innovation a missing link? . Journal of Marketing , 177–196.
Harper, J. K., Rister, M. E., Mjelde, J. W., Drees, B. M., & Way, M. O. (1990). Factors Influencing the Adoption of Insect Management Technology. American Journal of Agricultural Economics , 997-1005.
Heart, T., & Pliskin, N. (2002). Business-to-business e-commerce of information systems: two cases of ASP-To-SME e-rental. INFOR , 23–34.
Hollenstein, H. (2004). Determinants of the adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) An empirical analysis based on ﬁrm-level data for the Swiss business sector. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics , 315–342.
Hudson, D. H. (2003). Willingness to pay for water quality improvements: the case of precision application technology. J. Agric. Res. Econ , 433–449.
Innovation and the environment. (2000). Innovation and the environment . OECD.
Iskandar, B., Kurokawa, S., & Leblanc, L. (2001). Adoption of electronic data interchange: the role of buyer-supplier relationships. IEEE Transactions of Engineering Management , 505-17.
JaBoo. (2005, March 15). research papers. Retrieved July 13, 2010, from OPPapers.com: http://www.OPPapers.com
Jaime, G., & Pilar, V
Julien, P.-A., & Raymond, L. (1994). Factors of New Technology Adoption in the Retail Sector. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice , 18.
Karshenas, M., & Stoneman, P. (1993). Rank, stock, order, and epidemic effects in the diffusion of new process technologies: an empirical model. Rand Journal of Economics , 503–528.
Khanna, M. (2001). Sequential adoption of site-speciﬁc technologies and its implications for nitrogen productivity:a double selectivity model. Am. J. Agric. Econ , 35–45.
Kohli, A., & Jaworski, B. (1990). Market orientation: the construct, research propositions, and managerial implications. Journal of Marketing , 1–18.
Kuan, K., & Chau, P. (2001). A perception-based model for EDI adoption in small businesses using a technology-organization-environment framework. Information & Management , 507-521.
Leadbeater, C. (2000). Living on Thin Air: The New Economy. Penguin, London.
Lee, M.-C. (2009). Factors inﬂuencing the adoption of internet banking: An integration of TAM and TPB with perceived risk and perceived beneﬁt. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications , 130–141.
Lefebvre, L., Mason, R., & Lefebvre, E. (1997). The inﬂuence prism in SMEs: the power of CEOs’ perceptions on technology policy and its organizational impacts. Management Science , 856–878.
Leonard, B. D., & Deschamps, I. (1998). Managerial inﬂuence in the implementation of new technology. Management Science , 1252–1265.
Levitt, T. (1983). The globalisation of markets. Harvard Business Review.
Liu, H., Ke, W., Wei, K. K., Gu, J., & Chen, H. (2010). The role of institutional pressures and organizational culture in the ﬁrm’s intention to adopt internet-enabled supply chain management systems. Journal of Operations Management .
Lovata, L. M. (1988). The utilization of generalized audit software. A Journal of Practice and Theory , 72–86.
Love, P. E., & Irani, Z. (2004). An exploratory study of information technology evaluation and beneﬁts management practices of SMEs in the construction industry. Information & Management , 227–242.
Love, P. E., Irani, Z., & Edwards, D. J. (2004). Industry-centric benchmarking of information technology benefits, costs and risks for small-to-medium sized enterprises in construction. Automation in Construction , 507– 524.
Malhotra, Y. (2005). Integrating knowledge management technologies in organizational business processes: getting real time enterprises to deliver real business performance. Journal of Knowledge Management , 9, 7-28.
Malhotra, Y. (2004). Why knowledge management systems fail. Enablers and constraints of knowledge management in human enterprises. Knowledge Management Lessons Learned , 87-112.
Marra, M., Pannell, D. J., & Ghadim, A. A. (2003). The economics of risk, uncertainty and learning in the adoption of new agricultural technologies: where are we on the learning curve? Agricultural Systems , 75, 215–234.
Mary, B., Curtis, & Elizabeth, A. P. (2008). An examination of contextual factors and individual characteristics affecting technology implementation decisions in auditing. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems , 9, 104–121.
Mazhar, N. (2010). http://ezinearticles.com/Computers and Technology/Technology Acceptance Model.mht. Retrieved october 16, 2010, from www.ezinearticles.com: http://ezinearticles.com
Millard, Ducatel, K., & Jeremy. (1996). EMPLOYMENT AND INNOVATION IN ADVANCED COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES. Furures , 171-138.
Morash, E., & Clinton, S. (1998). Supply chain integration: customer value through collaborative closeness versus operational excellence. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice , 104–120.
Narver, J., & Slater, S. (1990). The effect of a market orientation on business proﬁtability. Journal of Marketing , 20–35.
Noori, H. (1994). AMT management and research: How do Malaysian companies measure Up? SIRIM, Malaysia.
NOORI, H. (1997). IMPLEMENTING ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY: THE PERSPECTIVE OF A NEWLY INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRY (MALAYSIA). The Journal of High Technology Management Research , 8, 1-20.
Nyheim, P., McFadden, F., & Connolly, D. (2004). Technology strategies for the hospitality industry. Technology strategies for the hospitality industry. Pearson Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Osmonbekov, T. (2010). Reseller adoption of manufacturers ' e-business tools: The impact of social enforcement, technology–relationship ﬁt and the mediating role of reseller beneﬁts. Journal of Business Research , 217–223.
Oyeyinka, B. O., & Lal, K. (2006). Learning new technologies by small and medium enterprises in developing countries. Technovation , 220–231.
Paul, P. (1996). Marketing on the Internet. JOURNAL OF CONSUMER MARKETING , 27-39.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document