Prior to understanding the multiple perspectives with regards to the statement, I will first decipher the terminologies used. (Volti 2012) states that technology can be defined in the most general way as the use of knowledge and organization to produce objects and techniques for the attainment of specific goals. Adding on, to my understanding of organisations, it is where it is designed to achieve specific goals with the collaboration of variables such as technologies, frameworks relating people and etc. Multiple perspectives is looking at the world producing different knowledge in different ways and this different perspective come to be associated with their own concepts & theories. (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006) In my essay, I will use three perspectives which is modernism, symbolic interpretive and postmodernism and show their different views on the role of technology in organisations and why they hold them. Then, I will analyse each perspective to what they have to say on this issue and why do they say it.
The foundation of all theories
For comparison of the three perspectives to take place, assumptions underlying each of these perspective should be examined and a good place to begin is with the philosophical choices of ontology and epistemology. Ontology is concerned with how you choose to define what is real whereas epistemology is concerned with how you form knowledge and establish criteria for evaluating it. (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006)
Modernist ontology is objectivism where it belief in objective, external reality whose existence is independent of our knowledge of it whereas for epistemology, it is positivism where truth is discovered through conceptualisation and reliable measurement that allows us to test knowledge against an objective world; knowledge accumulates, allowing humans to progress and evolve. (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006) (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006) states you must commit to limiting what you count as knowledge to what you can know through your five sense. Their goal is to discover the ‘truths’ that govern organisations. Organizations are objectively real entities operating in a real world. They are systems of decision and and action driven by norms of rationality, efficiency and effectiveness for stated purposes when well-designed and managed. (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006) Modernism uses the deductive approach which test theory against ‘empirical reality’.
Symbolic interpretive ontology is subjectivism where they believe that they cannot know an external or objective existence apart from our subjective awareness of it. Its epistemology is interpretivism where all knowledge is relative to the knower and can only be understood from the point of view of the individuals who are directly involved. (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006) In other words, subjectivism focus on what is real is that which we agree is real and for intrepretivism, truth is relative to place and time and the individuals who are involved in constructing meaning. Symbolic interpretivists are willing to extend the definition of empirical reality to include forms of experience that lie outside the reach of the five senses, as do emotion and intuition. Through this, their findings cannot be easily duplicated by others . They focus on meaning and understanding as it occurs in particular contexts: consequently their findings should not be generalized beyond the context in which they were produced. (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006) Their goal is to arrive at context specific and relative statements of the logic of organisational reality. Organizations are continually constructed and reconstructed by their members through symbolically mediated interaction where they are realities where meanings promote and are promoted by understanding of the self and others that occurs within the organizational context. (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006) Symbolic interpretive uses the inductive approach which is a...
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