Kidney Function

Topics: Kidney, Renal physiology, Renal failure Pages: 6 (1686 words) Published: September 9, 2013
Urinary Analysis
Urinary Analysis
2013
Kita Jones
A&P 314-01
4/26/2013
2013
Kita Jones
A&P 314-01
4/26/2013

Abstract:
The purpose is to demonstrate the role of the kidneys in the homeostatic control of extracellular fluid volume, plasma ionic concentrations, and osmolality. Three treatment groups were utilized: a Gatorade group, salt-loaded (access to 0.9 g/l00 ml NaCl) group, and a group who only had water. In this experiment the class was able to observe and analyze the changes in urine production as a means of determining the amount of salt the body gets on a day-to-day basis.

Introduction:
The kidneys are important regulators of homeostasis in the body. They regulate ions and pH as well as water. In addition, kidneys also serve as the principle organ for the elimination of metabolic waste products. There are two kidneys in the human body, one on each side. The parts of the kidney include the renal cortex, renal medulla, which contains the nephron. The nephron is functional unit of the kidney where maintenance levels of waste excretion and water take place. Blood comes into the afferent arterial goes to the glomerulus and leaves via the efferent arteriole. The glomerulus is a porous structure that filters small ions and glucose molecules called filtrate, which is gathered by the bowmen capsule (2). Beginning in the proximal tube is where sugars and nutrients are reabsorbed, as the filtrate leaves the glomerulus the solution becomes isotonic and travels down the loop of Henley the solution becomes more hypertonic (concentrated) because water leaves out, However when the filtrate moves back up the ascending tubule, the filtrate becomes more dilute because the limb is only permeable to salts, so they leave out (2). The filtrate then moves toward the distil tubules and reabsorbs more nutrients such as hydrogen, potassium, salts, water and bicarbonate ions before it reaches collecting duct. Once the filtrate has reached collecting duct there is no turning back. The final concentration of the urine is determined by the permeability of the collecting duct, which is under the control of the hormones in the nervous system (3). Results:

Figure 1: This figure shows the total amount of urine excreted from all three trials. Gatorade shows to have the most collected urine compared to water and NaCl groups.

| Gatorade| Water| .9% NaCl|
Total urine volume| 717.1 mL| 629.8 mL| 204.2 mL|
Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)| 89.4 mL/min| 65.42 mL/min| 21.19 mL| Creatinine Clearance| 89.4 mg/dL| 65.42 mg/dL| 21.19 mg/dL|

Figure 2: This figure shows the urine volume collected after each trial over the 90 min period for each group. Looking at the graph it is clear to see that people what drank water and Gatorade had a significant increase in urine volume, while salt group had a smaller increase in volume after the first 30 minutes. The GFR for Gatorade after 30 minutes was 702.42mL/min and the creatinine clearance was 702.42mg/dL

Average volume| | |
Time| Gatorade| Water| .9% NaCl| GFR| Creatinine Clearance| 30 minutes| 140.88 mL| 103.55 mL| 66.6 mL| 702.42mL/min| 702.42mg/dL| 60 minutes| 333.13 mL| 280.22mL| 89 mL| |

90 minutes| 243.13 mL| 246 mL| 48.6 mL| |

Figure 3: This figure shows the urine osmolarity over the 90 min period. The urine osmolality shows the amounts of water retained in the urine. In this figure the salt group has the highest osmolality, meaning it has the more molecules that were dissolved in the urine.

Average Concentration|
Time| Gatorade| Water| .9% NaCl|
30 minutes| 462.63mOsml/L| 540.88 mOsm/L| 623.2 mOsml/L| 60 minutes| 78.75 mOsm/L| 118.55 mOsml/L| 463 mOsml/L| 90 minutes| 79.75 mOsm/L| 79.77 mOsml/L| 706.8 mOsml/L| Average| 207.04 | 246.4| 597.67|

Figure 4: This figure shows the NaCl collected after each...

References: 1. "Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)-Topic Overview." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013.
2. "Your Kidneys and How They Work." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013.
3. Freudenrich, Ph.D., Craig.  "How Your Kidneys Work" 10 January 2001.  HowStuffWorks.com. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/human-biology/kidney.htm> 24 April 2013.
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