Hybrid Seed Production

Topics: Flower, Pollination, Plant sexuality Pages: 17 (5169 words) Published: August 31, 2013
Contents
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 2 Hybrid Seed Production of Rice ......................................................................................................... 3 Hybrid seed production of Maize ..................................................................................................... 13 Hybrid seed production of Tomato .................................................................................................. 17 Hybrid seed production of pumpkin ................................................................................................ 20 Basic requirements in hybrid seed production ................................................................................. 22 Sustainability of commercial hybrid seed production ....................................................................... 23 references ....................................................................................................................................... 23

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Introduction
Seed is a mature integumented megasporangium or mature ovule consisting of embryonic plants together whit store food material covered by a protective coat (mega sporangium i.e. female gametophyte –the pistils are the female reproductive organs called megasporophylly in the flowering plants) the ovary of the carpel contains ovules (megasprorangia) In hybrid seed production, the crosses are specific and controlled. The advantage of growing hybrid seed compared to inbred lines comes from heterosis. To produce hybrid seed, elite inbred varieties are crossed with well-documented and consistent phenotypes (such as yield) and the resulting hybrid seed is collected. Another factor that is important in hybrid seed production is the combining ability of the parent plants. Although two elite inbred parent plant varieties may produce the highest yields of their crop, it does not necessarily mean that crossing these inbreds will result in the highest yielding hybrid. The level of heterosis that the parents will generate in the resultant seed is called "combining ability." Higher combining ability between the parents results in increased performance in the resulting hybrid seed. Hybrids are bred to improve the characteristics of the plants.     better yield greater uniformity improved color disease resistance,

a Today, hybrid seed production is predominant in agriculture and home gardening, and is one of the main contributing factors to the dramatic rise in agricultural output during the last half of the 20th century.

2

Hybrid Seed Production of Rice
Introduction
Rice is the staple food of more than 60 percent of the world population. About 90 percent of all the rice grain in the world is produced and consumed in Asia. In India alone, rice is cultivated on more than 44.6 million ha (Mha) with an average productivity of 3.0 t/ha. In countries such as China, where rice is cultivated on nearly 30.5 Mha, average productivity is nearly 6.2 t/ha. Such differences in productivity depend mainly on the genotypes used, the quality of the seeds, the management practices adopted and the climatic conditions during the crop growth period. Since high quality seed is free from various diseases and has better seed health, it tends to produce healthy seedlings with no initial disease inoculums. Asuperior quality seed not only increases productivity per unit area, but it also helps produce uniform crops without any admixtures - important for obtaining high prices on the market. High-quality produce results in high milling recovery and better quality rice, which translates into increased profits What is hybrid rice? Hybrid rice is the commercial rice crop grown from F1 seeds of a cross between two genetically dissimilar parents.   Good rice hybrids have the potential of yielding 15–20% more than the best inbred variety grown...

References: http://cornindia.com/hybrid-seed-production-technology-maize-andhra-pradesh/ http://www.slideshare.net/Safarnoori/hybrid-seed-production-technology-of-maize http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/ricebreedingcourse/Intellectual_Property_Rights_and_Germpla sm_Exchange.htm http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/ricebreedingcourse/documents/2LineHybridRiceBreeding.pdf http://seedbiology.osu.edu/HCS630_files/May%203/hybrid%20seed%20production%20maize%20 ppt.pdf http://seedbiology.osu.edu/HCS630_files/May%2017/Tomato%20and%20Pepper,%20ppt.pdf http://seedbiology.osu.edu/HCS630_files/May%2017/tomato%20and%20pepper,%20text.pdf http://www.google.lk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=hybrid%20pumpkin%20pdf
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