Crime and its effects on society (P3 P4 M1)
Bandura the Social Learning Theory
The Social Learning Theory says that people can learn by watching other people perform the behaviour. Observational learning explains the nature of children to learn behaviours by watching the behaviour of the people around them, and eventually, imitating them. With the "Bobo Doll" experiment, Bandura included an adult who is tasked to act aggressively toward a Bobo Doll while the children observe him. Later, Bandura let the children play inside a room with the Bobo Doll. He affirmed that these children imitated the aggressive behaviour toward the doll, which they had observed earlier.
After his studies, Bandura was able to determine 3 basic models of observational learning, which include: A Live Model, which includes an actual person performing a behaviour, A Verbal Instruction Model, which involves telling of details and descriptions of a behaviour, A Symbolic Model, which includes either a real or fictional character demonstrating the behaviour via movies, books, television, radio, online media and other media sources. Ronald Aker also suggested mechanisms were shown in social learning theory, the first being differential reinforcement, this means that crime will be more likely to occur when it is frequently in forced and infrequently punished. This shows the subject the committing crime it okay which therefore confuses the person of what right and wrong is. Theory 2
Lombroso Biological theory
In 1876 Cesare Lombroso argued that the criminal is a separate species, a species that is between modern and primitive humans. Lombroso argued that the physical shape of the head and face determined the "born criminal". Lombroso went further and suggested that from the surveys he had carried out in prison, he could detect physiological differences between different types of criminal. Murderers were said to have: Cold, glassy, blood-shot eyes, curly, abundant hair, strong jaws, long ears and thin lips. Sex offenders have: Glinting eyes, strong jaws, thick lips, lots of hair and projecting ears.'
Fred west case study
Fred west was born into a lower class farming family on July 5th 1914. He was one of six children I his household. His father had incestuous relationships with his daughters. He was taught “do what he wants, just don’t get caught doing it” which may have played part in his conditioning. It is also believed that his mother too, sexually abused him from age of 12 however this was never proven. Criminal activity and repercussions:
He was arrested at 19 for molesting a 13 year old, he was convicted however did not receive any punishment. He filmed himself raping one of his daughter in May of 1962. The incident was reported on august 4th and an investigation began on august 6th. Through his arrest the police received a warrant to search his home found human remains in his garden. West then admitted to up to 9 murders, including his daughter and first wife Catherine. Upon his arrest he committed suicide. Social learning:
People learn by watching what other do and then copy that behaviour. The concept of social learning applies strongly to this case. Fred west was shown from child hood incest was ‘ok’. He himself may have been sexually assaulted and I turn had projected the same actions into his thoughts and eventually onto his own daughters. This shows how his upbringing taught him that because he suffered from sexual abuse, it was in some way acceptable for him to carry on and abuse his own family. Biological theory:
Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory
Freud argued that all humans have natural urges and desires which could develop into criminal activity unless they are repressed. However, Freud further argued that repression can cause different problems. As children our parents or carers socialise us to suppress these instinctive impulses. The improperly socialized child may...
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