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For other uses, see Palm wine (disambiguation).
Palm wine, also called kallu (Kannada: ಕಲ್ಲು,Telugu: కల్లు,Tamil: கள்ளு, Malayalam: കള്ള്), palm toddy, or simply toddy / tadi (Hindi:ताड़ी), is an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree such as the palmyra, date palms and coconut palms.[not in citation given] This drink is common in various parts of Asia and Africa, and goes by various names, such as emu and oguro in Nigeria; nsamba in theDemocratic Republic of the Congo; nsafufuo in Ghana; kallu in South India; matango in Cameroon; tuak in North Sumatra, Indonesia;mnazi in the Mijikenda language of Kenya; goribon (Rungus) in Sabah, Borneo; and tuba in the Philippines, Borneo and Mexico. In the Philippines, tubâ refers both to the freshly harvested, sweetish cloudy-white sap and the one with the red lauan-tree tan bark colorant. InLeyte, the red tuba is aged with the tan bark for up to six months to two years, until it gets dark red and tapping its glass container gives a sound that does not suddenly stop. This type of tubâ is called bahal (for tuba aged this way for up to six months) and bahalina (for tubaaged thus for up to a year or more). Toddy is also consumed in Sri Lanka and Myanmar. On the one hand, production of palm wine may have contributed to the endangered status of some palm species such as the Chilean wine palm (Jubaea chilensis). On the other hand, palm wine production by small holders and individual farmers may promote conservation as palm trees become a source of regular household income that may economically be worth more than the value of timber sold. Contents
3 Social role
4 Culinary use
5 Consumption by animals
7 See also
9 External links
Toddy collectors at work onCocos nucifera palms
Tapping palm sap in East Timor
The sap is extracted and collected by a tapper. Typically the sap is collected from the cut flower of the palm tree. A container is fastened to the flower stump to collect the sap. The white liquid that initially collects tends to be very sweet and non-alcoholic before it is fermented. An alternate method is the felling of the entire tree. Where this is practiced, a fire is sometimes lit at the cut end to facilitate the collection of sap. Palm wine tapping is mentioned in the novel Things Fall Apart by the Nigerian writerChinua Achebe and is central to the plot of the groundbreaking novel The Palm Wine Drinkard by Nigerian author Amos Tutuola. In parts of India, the unfermented sap is called neera (padaneer in Tamil Nadu) and is refrigerated, stored and distributed by semi-government agencies. A little lime is added to the sap to prevent it from fermenting. Neera is said to contain many nutrients including potash. Palm sap begins fermenting immediately after collection, due to natural yeasts in the pores of pot and air (often spurred by residual yeast left in the collecting container). Within two hours, fermentation yields an aromatic wine of up to 4% alcohol content, mildly intoxicating and sweet. The wine may be allowed to ferment longer, up to a day, to yield a stronger, more sour and acidic taste, which some people prefer. Longer fermentation produces vinegar instead of stronger wine. In Africa, the sap used to create palm wine is most often taken from wild datepalms such as the silver date palm (Phoenix sylvestris), the palmyra, and the jaggery palm (Caryota urens), or from oil palm such as the African Oil Palm (Elaeis guineense) or from Raffia palms, kithul palms, or nipa palms. In India and South Asia, coconut palms and Palmyra palms such as the Arecaceaeand Borassus are preferred. In southern Africa, palm wine (ubusulu) is produced in Maputaland, an area in the south of Mozambique between the Lobombo mountains and the Indian Ocean. It is mainly produced from the lala palm...
References: 3. Jump up^ C. Michael Hogan. 2008. Chilean Wine Palm: Jubaea chilensis, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg
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