ﺍﻷﻴﺩﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ "ﺍﻟﻭﺠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺠﻴﺯﺓ

Topics: Modernism, Sociology, Ideology Pages: 41 (11655 words) Published: January 4, 2013
‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ )ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ( ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻋﺸﺭ، ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ، ﺹ72-85، ﻴﻭﻨﻴﻭ 9002‬

‫7413-0702 ‪ISSN‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻴﺩﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ "ﺍﻟﻭﺠﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺠﻴﺯﺓ"‬ ‫ﺩ. ﺨﻀﺭ ﻋﻁﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﺠﺯ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﻗﺼﺼﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺘﺏ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺨﺹ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻼﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺘﺔ، ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺭ ﻁﻭﺍل ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﻴﻥ، ﻭﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻲ، ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﺩﺃﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻭﺩﺓ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ، ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺘﻡ ﺒﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﻴﺩﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻭﺹ. ﻓﺎﻷﻴﺩﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺎﻑ ﻫﻲ ﺸﻜل، ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ـ ﻓﻜل ﻤﻨﻅﻭﻤﺔ ﺸﻜل ـ ﻭﻨﺤﻥ ﺤﻴﻥ ﻨﺘﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﻴﺩﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ، ﻨﺩﺭﻙ ﺃﻨﻨﺎ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﻨﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻨﺼﺭﻴﻥ ﻓـﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل، ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺘﻲ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻴﺩﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ"، ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻘـﻭل ﺘﻴـﺭﻱ ﺇﻴﺠﻠﺘـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺫ ﺘﺤﺎﻭل ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺍﺜﺔ ﻭﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ، ﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻬـﺩﻑ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬

‫ﺘﺤﺎﻭل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺝ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴﻥ، ﻓﻲ ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻷﺩﺒﻴﺔ: ﻤـﻨﻬﺞ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ. "ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻪ، ﺒﻭﺼﻔﻪ ﻨﻭﻋﺎ ﺨﺎﺼﺎ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫)ﺒﺭﻭﻙ ﻭﺁﺨﺭﻭﻥ، 0002: 53ـ63(.‬

‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻨﺼﻲ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺸﻤﻭﻻ. ﻓﻠﻘﺩ ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺒﺄﻥ "ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺎﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺩ ﺫﺍﺘﻪ، ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺩﺩﻩ" )ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻴﻥ، 7991: 36(.‬

‫ﻨﺤﻭ ﺃﻱ ﺸﻲﺀ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﻊ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻪ، ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺜل ﻋﺒﺜﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﻼﻗﻲ، ﺒﻌﻴﺩﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻤﺜﺒﺘﺎ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬

‫‪Abstract‬‬
‫‪This study is trying to combine methodology, in the interpretation of‬‬ ‫‪literary texts: a study Formalism Pure, which spread throughout the past two‬‬ ‫‪decades, and The historical criticism methods, which have begun now to‬‬ ‫‪return under the name of cultural criticism, which interested in analysing the‬‬ ‫‪ideological content of the texts. Ideology, ultimately, is a form, in addition‬‬ ‫‪to being a content. Every system is a form. and when we talk about the‬‬ ‫‪relationship between aesthetic perception and ideology, we realize that we‬‬ ‫‪are talking about two elements in a single operation. The prevailing‬‬ ‫‪perception among people from the aesthetic response could be analysed, as‬‬ ‫‪a special kind of interaction between the processes of responding aesthetic‬‬ ‫.‪and ideological response‬‬

‫ﺩ. ﺨﻀﺭ ﻋﻁﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﺠﺯ، ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ، ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻋﺸﺭ، ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ، ﻴﻭﻨﻴﻭ 9002‬

‫‪This study when it’s trying to take advantage of the tools of‬‬ ‫‪modernism and postmodernism methodology, aims at reaching a more‬‬ ‫‪comprehensive analysis of the texts. We have learned that the study of‬‬ ‫‪discourse itself, without knowing anything about looking outside, is in such‬‬ ‫‪moral man absurd, far from the reality that there installed it and it may‬‬ ‫.‪determine‬‬

‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ:‬
‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻜﺎﺘﺏ ﻗﺼﺼﻲ، ﻭﺸﺎﻋﺭ ﻭﻨﺎﻗﺩ ﺃﺩﺒﻲ ﻭﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ، ﻟـﻡ ﺘﺘﻭﻗـﻑ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﺃﺩﺏ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻠﺔ، ﻟﻌﺩﺓ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺭﺒﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ، ﺃﻨﻪ ﻁﺎﺌﺭ ﻴﻐـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﺏ: ﺇﺫ ﻨﺄﻯ ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺯﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻭﻋﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﺭﺍﺌﻴﻠﻲ، ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻨﻌﺭﻑ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﺎ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻤﺜـل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻨﻴﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻠﺔ، ﻤﻔﻀﻼ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺼـﺭﻱ، ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺠﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺘﻬﺎ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺭﻤﻭﺯ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻗﺩ ﻅﻠﻭﺍ ﻴﺴﺘﺜﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﺒﺠﺫﺭﻴﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﻼ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺯﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻭﻋﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﺭﺍﺌﻴﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻬﻴﻭﻨﻴﺔ. ﻭﻟﻌل ﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻔﺴﺭ ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻻ ﻨﺠﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﺄﻥ ﺘﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﻉ ﻭﺃﻤﺜﺎﻟﻪ، ﺨﺼﻭﺼﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻁﺭﺃ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺒﻨﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻬﻴﻭﻨﻴﺔ ـ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ ﺼﻌﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﻲ ـ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﻨﻲ ﻤﺘﺸﺩﺩ ﻜﺄﺤﻤﺩ ﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﻤﻘﻭﻻﺕ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻴﺩﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﺃﻤﻤﻴﺔ. ﻭﻤﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺎﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻴﺭﻴﺩ ﺒﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺎﺭﻕ ـ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻀﺒﻁﻪ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺎ ـ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤـﺎ ﺘﻘﻭﻟـﻪ ﻜﻠﻤـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺒﺩﺍﻉ ﻤﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﻁﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﻅﻠﻤﺘﻪ ﺍﻵﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻴﺩﻴﻭﺇﻋﻼﻤﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ )ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ( ﻓﻲ ﺨﻤﺴﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﺭﻡ، ﻗﺒل ﺃﻥ ﻴﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻬﻴﻭﻨﻲ ﺒﺤﻅﺭﻫـﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺄﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﺒﻲ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﻼﻤﻲ؛ ﻓﻼ ﻴﺨﻔﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺘﺼﻭﺭ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻘﻭﻻﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ، ﻭﻜﻠﻤﺎﺘﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺔ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﺨﻔﻰ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﻭﻤﻌﺘﻘـﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﻗﻨﻌـﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ. ﻭﻤﺎ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺇﻻ ﻷﻨﻨﺎ ﻨﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل، ﺃﻻ ﻴﺫﻫل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﻭﺍﺠﻪ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﻟﻐﻭﻴﺎ: ﺃﻱ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻴل ﺍﻟﺭﻤﺯﻴﺔ، ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺘﻌﺩﻭ ﻜﻭﻨﻬـﺎ ﺘﻤﺜـﻴﻼ.‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬

‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﻨﺎ ﻨﻌﺭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻭﻴﺔ ﺇﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺇﻻ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺨﻠﻕ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻨـﺸﺄﺕ ﻤـﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﻓـﻲ...
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